Pilgrim history: A mini-course in self-government

Bill Federer asks if America could fundamentally transform from republic into dictatorship


Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620,’ by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899

Sept. 16, 1620, according to the Gregorian Calendar, 102 passengers set sail on the Pilgrims’ ship, Mayflower, with the blessings of their separatist pastor, John Robinson. Their 66-day journey of 2,750 miles encountered storms so rough the beam supporting the main mast cracked and was propped back in place with “a great iron screw.”

One youth, John Howland, was swept overboard by a freezing wave and rescued. His descendants include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Humphrey Bogart, Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush. During the Pilgrims’ voyage, a man died and a mother gave birth.

Intending to land in Virginia, they were blown off-course to Massachusetts. With the weather too dangerous to sail, the captain insisted they disembark. With no “king-appointed” person on board with authority to take charge, the Pilgrims gave themselves authority and created their own government – the Mayflower Compact.

Where did they get this idea? From their separatist Pastor John Robinson, considered one of the founders of the Congregational Church.

Pastor Robinson is prominently depicted kneeling in prayer in a painting in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda – “The Embarkation of the Pilgrims.”

Of the Pilgrims’ landing at Plymouth, Massachusetts, Governor William Bradford wrote: “Being thus arrived in a good harbor, and brought safe to land, they fell upon their knees and blessed the God of Heaven who had brought them over the vast and furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries thereof, again to set their feet on the firm and stable earth, their proper element.”

Though half died that first bitter winter, Governor William Bradford wrote: “Last and not least, they cherished a great hope and inward zeal of laying good foundations … for the propagation and advance of the gospel of the kingdom of Christ in the remote parts of the world.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt stated Oct. 28, 1936, regarding America’s founding: “Rulers … increase their power over the common men. The seamen they sent to find gold found instead the way of escape for the common man from those rulers. … What they found over the Western horizon was not the silk and jewels of Cathay but mankind’s second chance – a chance to create a new world after he had almost spoiled an old one. … The Almighty seems purposefully to have withheld that second chance until the time when men would most need and appreciate liberty. … Those who came … had courage … to abandon language and relatives … to start … without influence, without money. … Perhaps Providence did prepare this American continent to be a place of the second chance.”

At the bicentennial celebration of the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock, Secretary of State Daniel Webster stated Dec. 22, 1820: “There is a … sort of genius of the place, which … awes us. We feel that we are on the spot where the first scene of our history was laid; where the hearths and altars of New England were first placed; where Christianity, and civilization … made their first lodgement, in a vast extent of country. … ‘If God prosper us,’ might have been the … language of our fathers, when they landed upon this Rock, ‘… we shall here begin a work which shall last for ages … We shall fill this region of the great continent … with civilization and Christianity. …”

Webster continued: “The morning that beamed … saw the Pilgrims already at home … a government and a country were to commence, with the very first foundations laid under the divine light of the Christian religion. … Our ancestors established their system of government on morality and religious sentiment. … Whatever makes men good Christians, makes them good citizens. Our fathers came here to enjoy their religion free and unmolested; and, at the end of two centuries, there is nothing upon which we can pronounce more confidently … than of the inestimable importance of that religion to man …”

Webster added a rebuke: “The African slave-trader is a pirate and a felon; and in the sight of Heaven, an offender far beyond the ordinary depth of human guilt. … If there be … any participation in this traffic, let us pledge ourselves here, upon the rock of Plymouth, to extirpate and destroy it. … I invoke the ministers of our religion, that they proclaim its denunciation of these crimes, and add its solemn sanctions to the authority of human laws. If the pulpit be silent whenever or wherever there may be a sinner bloody with this guilt within the hearing of its voice, the pulpit is false to its trust. …”

Daniel Webster reflected further: “Whoever shall hereafter write this part of our history … will be able to record no … lawless and despotic acts, or any successful usurpation. His page will contain no exhibition of … civil authority habitually trampled down by military power, or of a community crushed by the burden of taxation. … He will speak … of that happy condition, in which the restraint and coercion of government are almost invisible and imperceptible. …”

Webster added: “Finally, let us not forget the religious character of our origin. Our fathers were brought hither by their high veneration for the Christian religion. They journeyed by its light, and labored in its hope. They sought to incorporate its principles with the elements of their society, and to diffuse its influence through all their institutions, civil, political, or literary. Let us cherish these sentiments, and extend this influence still more widely; in the full conviction, that that is the happiest society which partakes in the highest degree of the mild and peaceful spirit of Christianity.”

The Plymouth Rock Foundation was founded in 1970 with the mission: “To make more widely known and understood the Pilgrim principles and characteristics – their devotion to God and the Bible, to freedom and to tolerance, and their embodiment of courage, brotherhood, and individual moral character.”

Dr. Paul Jehle, Executive Director of the Plymouth Rock Foundation, whose ancestors were on the Mayflower, wrote “Mayflower Compact Day” (Plymouth Rock Foundation’s E-News, November, 2011): “We remember when the Mayflower Compact was signed on board the Mayflower, while it lay anchored in what is now Provincetown Harbor, November 11, 1620. … A compact is a covenant. … Since the Pilgrims were children of the Reformation, their view of covenant came from the Bible. It was God that initiated the concept of covenant, first with Adam and Eve (Genesis 2:15-17 and 2:24). God also made a covenant with Noah in Genesis 9 and of course the process of ‘cutting’ covenant was depicted in visual form for Abraham in Genesis 15. Throughout the Bible covenants were used both vertically (with God directly) and horizontally (with humans) to depict God’s process of bringing people into unity with Him and one another. Unity of purpose and harmony with God set the highest ideals for good behavior. …”

Dr. Jehle continued: “No wonder when Pastor John Robinson sent his farewell letter to the Pilgrims upon their departure in 1620, knowing that they would need to form their own civil government, he gave this sound advice: ‘Whereas you are become a body politic, using amongst yourselves civil government, and are not furnished with any persons of special eminency above the rest, to be chosen by you into office of government; let your wisdom and godliness appear, not only in choosing such persons as do entirely love and will promote the common good. … not being like the foolish multitude who more honor the gay coat than either the virtuous mind of the man, or glorious ordinance of the Lord.’”

The question the founders wrestled with was: Does power flow from the Creator –> to the king –> to the people; or does power flow from the Creator –> to the people –> to the political leaders?

At the time of America’s founding, nearly the entire world was ruled by kings who claimed to have a “divine right” to rule over people.

England’s King James I declared: “Kings are … God’s lieutenants upon earth … sit upon God’s throne. … The king is overlord of the whole land … master over every person … having power over the life & death of every one.”

France’s Louis XIV declared: “I am the State”; and “It is legal because I wish it.”

Dr. Marshall Foster of the Mayflower Institute (now World History Institute), co-producer of Kirk Cameron’s 2012 film “Monumental: In Search of America’s National Treasure,” wrote in “A Shining City on a Hill” (Feb. 27, 2013): “Four hundred years ago the conflict between tyranny and liberty was red hot. … When King James died in 1625, his son Charles I ascended to the throne with the arrogance of a Roman emperor. He was the quintessential ‘divine right’ monarch. He declared martial law and suspended the rights of the individual. … The king’s inquisitors at his ‘Star Chamber’ in the tower of London used torture techniques to ‘discover the taxpayer’s assets.’ … A turning point in public opinion took place on January 30, 1637. Three prisoners were locked down in the pillory in London before a huge crowd. … These men included a Puritan minister, a Christian writer and Dr. John Bastwick, a physician. What was their crime? They had written pamphlets disagreeing with the king’s religious views. The sheriff began by branding the men with red hot irons on the forehead with an SL for seditious libel. …”

Dr. Foster continued: “The tyranny of the king … finally aroused the Christian sensibilities of the people. They would no longer tolerate burnings or mutilations for matters of conscience on religious views. … The persecutions drove tens of thousands of liberty loving believers to follow the Pilgrims to New England where they laid the foundation for the world’s most biblically based nation.”

An experiment was attempted in New England, where pastors and their churches founded settlements:

  • Plymouth, Massachusetts – Pilgrims’ Rev. John Robinson and Elder William Brewster
  • Providence, Rhode Island – Rev. Roger Williams
  • Barnstable, Massachusetts – Rev. John Lothropp
  • Exeter, New Hampshire – Rev. John Wheelwright
  • Boston, Massachusetts – Rev. John Cotton
  • Hartford, Connecticut – Rev. Thomas Hooker

Due to a conflict with Puritan Rev. John Cotton, Rev. Thomas Hooker led his church members in 1636 from Massachusetts, through the wilderness, to found the city of Hartford, Connecticut. Settlers inquired of Rev. Hooker how they should set up their government.

Nearly a century before Europe’s “Age of Enlightenment,” Rev. Thomas Hooker preached a sermon, May 31, 1638, explaining: “Deuteronomy 1:13 ‘Choose you wise men and understanding and known among your tribes and I will make them heads over you captains over thousands, captains over hundreds, fifties, tens.’ … The choice of public magistrates belongs unto the people by Gods own allowance. … The privilege of election … belongs to the people … according to the blessed will and law of God. … They who have power to appoint officers and magistrates it is in their power also to set the bounds and limits of the power and places unto which they call them. … The foundation of authority is laid firstly in the free consent of the people.”

The ideas proposed in Hooker’s sermon were revolutionary as for most of the world, the foundation of authority was the will of a divinely-appointed king, emperor, czar, sultan, maharaja, or chieftain.

Rev. Hooker’s sermon became the basis for the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639. Nowhere in the Fundamental Orders is acknowledgement made to the king as in other charters, ie.: “our dread Sovereign”; “our gracious Lord the King.”

Instead of the top-down government of a “divinely-appointed” king, government was instead to be bottom-up, like the roots of a tree drawing nourishment from every citizen’s involvement.

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639, stated: “Where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union … there should be an orderly and decent Government established according to God. … the people … conjoin ourselves to be as one Public State or Commonwealth … to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess. … According to the truth of the said Gospel … our civil affairs to be guided and governed according to such Laws, Rules, Orders and Decrees as shall be made. … The governor … shall have the power to administer justice according to the Laws here established, and for want thereof, according to the Rule of the Word of God.”

The Fundamental Orders were used in Connecticut till 1818, serving as a blueprint for other New England colonies and eventually the United States Constitution.

George Washington, who presided over the Constitutional Convention, later dictated a “talk” Aug. 29, 1796: “Beloved Cherokees, The wise men of the United States meet together once a year, to consider what will be for the good of all their people … I have thought that a meeting of your wise men once or twice a year would be alike useful to you.”

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were described by Historian John Fiske (“Beginnings of New England,” Cambridge, 1889) as: “The first written constitution known to history that created a government. It marked the beginnings of American democracy, of which Thomas Hooker deserves more than any other man to be called the father. The government of the United States today is in lineal descent more nearly related to that of Connecticut than to that of any of the other thirteen colonies.”

Connecticut was designated “The Constitution State” in 1959. A statue of Rev. Thomas Hooker holding a Bible stands prominently at the Connecticut State Capitol, with the inscription on the base: “Leading his people through the wilderness, he founded Hartford in June of 1636. On this site he preached the sermon which inspired The Fundamental Orders. It was the first written Constitution that created a government.”

A plaque erected in Hartford by the Daughters of the American Revolution reads: “In 1636, The Church in Newtown, Massachusetts, Thomas Hooker, Minister, was transplanted to this locality, called Meeting House Yard, Old State House Square, City Hall Square. Near this site on May 31, 1638, Thomas Hooker preached his Famous Sermon: ‘The Foundation of Authority is Laid In the Free Consent of the people.’ Near this site on January 14, 1639, representatives of the three river towns adopted The Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut, ‘The first written constitution known to history that created a government.’”

A historical marker in England reads: “Thomas Hooker 1586-1647, Curate of St. Mary’s Church, Chelmsford and Town Lecturer 1626-1629, Founder of the State of Connecticut 1636, ‘Father of American Democracy.’”

Another marker reads: “Hinckley & Bosworth Borough Council, Thomas Hooker, (1586-1647), Puritan Clergyman, Pupil of this School, Reputed Father of ‘American Democracy.’”

A plaque in Cambridge, Massachusetts, reads: “Here Stood The Original Meeting House of the First Church in Cambridge. Built in 1632 and the center of the Civic and Religious Life of the Town. Here Ministered 1633-1636 Thomas Hooker – A Peerless Leader of Thought and Life in both Church and State.”

The Plymouth Rock Foundation’s first Executive Director was Dr. Charles Hull Wolfe, a dedicated Marxist who changed his views after conducting an independent study of American economics. Dr. Wolfe, with Dr. D. James Kennedy, wrote “Restoring the Real Meaning of Thanksgiving” (1989): “When the brilliant Rev. Thomas Hooker left Boston and settled in Hartford, he promptly called for three Connecticut towns to join together in forming a colony. Hooker followed the Pilgrim pattern and led the people of Connecticut in framing a written compact for civil self-government rooted in Mosaic tradition. He used as his text, ‘Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.’ (Deuteronomy 1:13). Hooker preached a scholarly sermon that guided the men of Connecticut in framing the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut in 1639, commonly called ‘the world’s first complete written constitution,’ though, in fact, Plymouth had framed a complete constitutional charter, the Pilgrim Code of Law, three years before.”

In New England, instead of separation of church and state, it was the pastors and churches that created the state!

President Calvin Coolidge stated at the 150th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Philadelphia, July 5, 1926: “The principles … which went into the Declaration of Independence … are found in … the sermons … of the early colonial clergy who were earnestly undertaking to instruct their congregations in the great mystery of how to live. They preached equality because they believed in the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. They justified freedom by the text that we are all created in the divine image. … Placing every man on a plane where he acknowledged no superiors, where no one possessed any right to rule over him, he must inevitably choose his own rulers through a system of self-government. … In order that they might have freedom to express these thoughts and opportunity to put them into action, whole congregations with their pastors migrated to the colonies.”

Where European kings were burning people at the stake for not believing the way they did, New England pastors concluded that since Jesus never forced anyone to follow him, they could not either. They determined that since the Kingdom of God can never be forced from the top down, the only way for it to happen was if the majority of people held godly values and voted for representatives holding their values, then laws would be passed reflecting those values, and the values of the Kingdom of God could come voluntarily from the bottom-up.


A “king,” as defined in Webster’s 1828 dictionary, is: “The chief or sovereign of a nation; a man invested with supreme authority over a nation, tribe or country; a monarch. Kings are absolute.”

Romans 13:1 “Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established.”

God allowed for America’s founders to establish a government where, instead of a single man being the supreme authority, the people are the supreme authority.

Signer of the Constitution Gouverneur Morris wrote: “This magistrate is not the king. the people are the king.”

John Jay, the First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, wrote in Chisholm v. Georgia, 1793: “the people are the sovereign of this country.”

Signer of Constitution James Wilson stated at the Pennsylvania Convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution: “Sovereignty resides in the people; they have not parted with it.”

Thomas Jefferson wrote to William Johnson, 1823: “But the Chief Justice says, ‘There must be an ultimate arbiter somewhere.’ True, there must. … The ultimate artiber is the people.”

James Madison wrote in Federalist No. 46, 1788: “The ultimate authority … resides in the people alone.”

Chief Justice John Marshall wrote in the case of Cohens v. Virginia, 1821: “The people made the Constitution, and the people can unmake it. It is the creature of their own will, and lives only by their will.”

Abraham Lincoln said in a debate with Stephen Douglas: “The people of these United States are the rightful masters of both Congresses and Courts.”

President Andrew Jackson wrote to William B. Lewis, Aug. 19, 1841: “The people are the government, administering it by their agents; they are the government, the sovereign power.”

President James K. Polk stated Dec. 7, 1847: “The people are the only sovereigns recognized by our Constitution. … The success of our admirable system is a conclusive refutation of the theories of those in other countries who maintain that a ‘favored few’ are born to rule and that the mass of mankind must be governed by force.”

President Grover Cleveland stated, July 13, 1887: “The sovereignty of 60 millions of free people, is … the working out … of the divine right of man to govern himself and a manifestation of God’s plan concerning the human race.”

President Gerald Ford stated at Southern Methodist University, Sept. 13, 1975: “Never forget that in America our sovereign is the citizen. … The state is a servant of the individual. It must never become an anonymous monstrosity that masters everyone.”

President Ronald Reagan opened the John Ashbrook Center in 1983, stating of America’s founders: “The Founding Fathers understood that only by making government the servant, not the master, only by positing sovereignty in the people and not the state can we hope to protect freedom.”

General Omar Bradley stated in his Armistice Day Address, Nov. 10, 1948: “In the United States it is the people who are sovereign. The the Government is theirs – to speak their voice and to voice their will.”

Webster’s 1828 dictionary defined “republic”: “Exercise of the sovereign power is lodged in representatives elected by the people.”

The Pledge of Allegiance is to the flag “and to the republic for which it stands.”

In a republic, the people are king, ruling through individuals they chose to represent them. When individuals dishonor the flag, what they are saying is, they no longer want to be the king – they want someone else to rule their lives.

James Wilson wrote in his “Lectures on Law,” 1790-91: “In a free country, every citizen forms a part of the sovereign power: he possesses a vote.”

Voting is not just a right, but a responsibility for which every citizen will be held accountable to God. Not to vote is to abdicate the throne.

Sam Adams stated in 1781: “Let each citizen remember at the moment he is offering his vote … that he is executing one of the most solemn trusts in human society for which he is accountable to God.”

Where did America’s founders get these ideas? They did draw some ideas from English Common Law and the Magna Carta, which limited the arbitrary power of a king. They did draw some ideas from the Roman republic and the Athenian Democracy. Ultimately, though, they looked back to Ancient Israel.

It took nine states to ratify the United States Constitution, eight had, and New Hampshire was in line to be the ninth, but its ratifying convention stalled.

Harvard President Samuel Langdon then gave an address, June 5, 1788, titled “The republic of the Israelites an Example to the American States,” stating: “Instead of the twelve tribes of Israel, we may substitute the thirteen States of the American union. …”

After this address, New Hampshire ratified the U.S. Constitution, thus putting it into effect.

Dr. Pat Robertson wrote in “America’s Dates with Destiny,” 1986: “What was happening in America had no real precedent, even as far back as the city-states of Greece. The only real precedent was established thousands of years before by the tribes of Israel in the covenant with God and with each other.”

What was the republic of the Israelites? Around 1,400 B.C., the Children of Israel left Egypt and entered the Promised Land. As explained in detail in the book “Rise of the Tyrant: Volume Two of Change to Chains – The 6,000 Year Quest for Global Control”:

  • Ancient Israel was the first well-recorded instance of an entire nation ruled without a king.
  • Everyone was equal under the law. This was the beginning of the concept of equality on planet earth. There was no royal family to curry favor with.
  • Ancient Israel had a system of honesty, as God hates unjust weights and measures. This provided a basis for commerce.
  • In Ancient Israel the land was titled to the families. This prevented a dictator from gathering up the land and putting the people back into slavery. If someone owned land, they could accumulate possessions: the Bible called this being blessed; Karl Marx called it being a capitalist.
  • Ancient Israel had a bureaucracy-free welfare system. When someone harvested their field, they left the gleanings for the poor.
  • Ancient Israel was the first nation where everyone was taught to read.
  • Ancient Israel had no police, as the people were not only taught the Law, they were accountable to enforce it. Albert Einstein stated: “The strength of the Constitution lies entirely in the determination of each citizen to defend it. Only if every single citizen feels duty bound to do his share in this defense are constitutional rights secure.”
  • Ancient Israel had no prisons, as the Law required swift justice at the city gates and a “city of refuge” where fugitives could flee to await a trial.
  • Ancient Israel had no standing army, as every man was in the militia, armed, and ready at a moment’s notice to defend his community.
  • In Ancient Israel, the people elected their own leaders, as Moses instructed in Deuteronomy 1:3-13: “How can I myself alone bear … your burden? … Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.”

There is a spectrum of power, with total government on one side and no government on the other.

On the total government side, power is concentrated into the hands of a king who rules through fear.

On the no government side, there is anarchy, unless the people have internal morals. But why would a person obey internal morals?

Ancient Israel had the key ingredient, namely, a God who:

  1. is watching everyone
  2. wants you to be fair
  3. will hold you accountable in the future

If you had the opportunity to steal and not get caught, you might considered it. But if you remember God is watching, that He wants you to be fair, and that He will hold you accountable in the future, you would hesitate. This is called having a “conscience.” If everybody in the nation believes this, there would be complete order with no police following everyone around.

Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan stated in 1908: “There is a powerful restraining influence in the belief that an All-seeing eye scrutinizes every thought and word and act of the individual.”

This only works, though, with the God of the Bible. An Islamic Allah permits lying, stealing, and raping infidel kafir non-Muslims. Only the God of the Bible declares that all men and women are equal, made in the image of the Creator, and to do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Claude Fleury wrote in “The Manners of the Ancient Israelites,” 1681: “The Israelites were perfectly free. They enjoyed the liberty cherished by Greece and Rome. Such was the purpose of God.”

E.C. Wines wrote in “Commentaries on the Laws of the Ancient Hebrews, with an Introductory Essay on Civil Society & Government” (NY: Geo. P. Putnam & Co., 1853): “Another of those great ideas, which constituted the basis of the Hebrew state, was liberty. … The Hebrew people enjoyed as great a degree of personal liberty, as can ever be combined with an efficient and stable government.”

Ancient Israel’s unique system was dependent upon the Levites and priests teaching the Law.

Pilgrim Governor William Bradford wrote in “Of Plymouth Plantation,” 1650: “I have had a longing desire, to see with my own eyes, something of the most ancient language, and holy tongue, in which the Law, and oracles of God were writ; and in which God, and angels, spoke to the holy patriarchs, of old time; and what names were given to things, from the creation. And though I cannot attaine to much herein, yet I am refreshed, to have seen some glimpse hereof; (as Moses say the Land of Canaan afarr off) my aime and desire is, to see how the words, and phrases lye in the holy texte; and to dicerne somewhat of the same for my owne contente.”

When the Levites and priests neglected teaching the Law, “every man did what was right in their own eyes,” immorality and domestic chaos resulted, and the people begged for a king to restore order. The prophet Samuel cried, and the Lord told him, “They have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them.”

Israel got King Saul, who shortly thereafter killed most of the priests.

Harvard President Samuel Langdon, in his address “Government Corrupted by Vice,” May 31, 1775, referred to ancient Israel: “The only form of government which had a proper claim to a divine establishment, was so far from including the idea of a king, that it was a high crime for Israel to ask to be in this respect like other nations; and when they were thus gratified, it was rather as a just punishment.”

This is a warning to any republic, that if the consciousness of God is removed and people yield to their unrestrained selfish passions and lusts, there will be domestic chaos, random violence, mobs smashing windows and looting in the streets. In this crisis, people will beg for a strong leader to restore order. This leader will send militarized police down the street, who will go house to house collecting all the guns. Order will indeed be restored, but when the dust settles, the people will have given up ruling themselves and will have returned to being ruled by a king.

Could America be that in national crisis? Could America fundamentally be transformed from a republic into a dictatorship?

For the American republic to last, citizens must learn from the early New England pastors, from ancient Israel, and return to the God of the Bible.

Noah Webster wrote in the preface of his 1828 Webster’s dictionary: “The Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed. … No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.”

Daniel Webster concluded his Plymouth Rock address, Dec. 22, 1820: “Ye future generations! We would hail you, as you rise in your long succession, to fill the places which we now fill. … We welcome you to the blessings of good government and religious liberty. … We welcome you to the immeasurable blessings of rational existence, the immortal hope of Christianity, and the light of everlasting truth! … We are bound … to convince the world that order and law, religion and morality, the rights of conscience, the rights of persons, and the rights of property, may all be preserved and secured, in the most perfect manner, by a government entirely and purely elective. If we fail in this, our disaster will be signal (monumental), and will furnish an argument … in support of those opinions which maintain that government can rest safely on nothing but power and coercion.”

Brought to you by AmericanMinute.com.


Original here

American Independence and the King of kings

July 4, 2019 By Terence P. Jeffrey

John Dickinson (Screen Capture/National Archives-New York Public Library)

John Dickinson was both passionate and polite — and served as a role model for political rhetoricians in an era long before the Age of Twitter.

“Complaints may be made with dignity; insults retorted with decency; and violated rights vindicated without violence of words,” he wrote in 1766.

He was responding to unnamed critics in Barbados, who had published an open letter that struck a sycophantic tone toward the British parliament, while simultaneously complaining about the Stamp Act passed by that parliament and ridiculing the “violent spirit raised in the North-American colonies against this act.”

Parliament approved the Stamp Act in 1765, imposing a tax on American colonists they had not approved through their own legislatures.

Dickinson was an eloquent critic of this act. In his view, parliament’s attack on American rights raised a fundamental question about all human rights.

“Kings and parliaments could not give the rights essential to happiness, as you confess those invaded by the Stamp Act to be,” he wrote.

“We claim them from a higher source — from the King of kings, and Lord of all the Earth,” he declared.

“They are not annexed to us by parchments and seals,” he wrote. “They are created in us by decrees of Providence, which establish the laws of our nature. They are born with us; exist with us; and cannot be taken from us by any human power, without taking our lives.

“In short,” he said, “they are founded on the immutable maxims of reason and justice.”

For the British Parliament to tax colonists not represented in that parliament, Dickinson concluded, “is inconsistent with reason and justice; and subversive of those sacred rights which God himself from the infinity of his benevolence has bestowed on mankind.”

As vehemently as Dickinson argued here — 10 years before the Declaration of Independence — against the acts of a British Parliament and for the God-given rights of American colonists, he ardently considered himself to be a British patriot.

“As to Great Britain, I glory in my relation to her,” he wrote.

“Every drop of blood in my heart is British,” he said, “and that heart is animated with as warm wishes for her prosperity, as her truest sons can form.”

Indeed, this American-born defender of God-given rights had learned the law in London. “From 1753 to 1757, he attended the Middle Temple at the Inns of Court in London and, upon his return to the colonies, established a practice in Philadelphia,” says the biography posted by The John Dickinson Writings Project at the University of Kentucky.

A decade after Dickinson declared that our rights come from the King of kings, Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, which invoked the same principle.

“We hold these truths to be self-evident,” wrote Jefferson, “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.”

Despite being one of America’s leading advocates of this principle, Dickinson declined to support declaring American independence.

“When the vote was taken, refusing to vote against his conscience but knowing that any declaration should be unanimous for the sake of the cause, Dickinson absented himself from the proceedings,” says the John Dickinson Writings Project biography.

Yet Dickinson did fight for the new United States of America.

“Determined to prove his patriotism, in 1777, Dickinson did something nearly unheard of for a gentleman of his stature — he enlisted in the Delaware militia as a private and, ‘with a musket upon (his) shoulder,’ scoured the countryside for supplie(s) and served at the Battle of Brandywine,” says the biography. “He was soon promoted to brigadier general, a commission he resigned later that year. Despite not being a Continental officer, Dickinson was nonetheless admitted to the Society of the Cincinnati as an honorary member for his distinguished service.”

Eighteen centuries before Dickinson and Jefferson argued there was a natural law, created by God, that no nation could disobey, Marcus Tullius Cicero made the same point.

“There is a true law, a right reason, conformable to nature, universal, unchangeable, eternal, whose commands urge us to duty, and whose prohibitions restrain us from evil,” Cicero wrote.

“It is not one thing at Rome and another at Athens; one thing today and another tomorrow; but in all times and nations this universal law must forever reign, eternal and imperishable,” he said.

“It is the sovereign master and emperor of all beings,” wrote that Roman patriot. “God himself is it author, its promulgator, its enforcer.”

As Americans celebrate the Fourth of July and more than 240 years of national independence, they should remember and revere not only those who fought to defend this principle, but the principle itself.

Terence P. Jeffrey is the editor-in-chief of CNSnews.com. To find out more about him, visit the Creators Syndicate webpage at http://www.creators.com.


Memorial Day Where America Was Born

By Don Feder – May 28, 2019

On Memorial Day weekend, you can usually find me at the Concord battlefield – the place where America was born.

Why there on April 19, 1775 and not in Philadelphia in 1776, when the Second Continental Congress adopted the document declaring our independence, or in the same city in 1787, when the U.S. Constitution was drafted?

Because however noble, inspiring and enduring they are, words are just words unless backed up with iron and steel.

A year before the Declaration of Independence was adopted, a group of colonial militiamen stood up to what was then the greatest army in the world and fired the first shots of the American Revolution. Lexington was a slaughter, like the French Army going into battle. The 700 British troops that marched out of Boston fired on 77 militiamen who were making a token show of force, killing 8 and wounding 9, without a shot fired on our side.

Concord was different. At the North Bridge, hundreds of militiamen fired on a force of Redcoats. Eventually, 2,000 men the British call peasants harassed His Majesty’s forces (including a relief column) all the way back to Boston and besieged the city. Concord is where our nation really started.

Of course, there’s more to America’s story than soldiers The epic includes pioneers and settlers, legislators and statesmen, presidents and poets, inventors and innovators, scientists and philanthropists, businessmen and scholars. But all of this counts for nothing unless there are men with guns guarding the liberty of the men and women with plows and test tubes, pens and gavels in their hands.

Which is why there’s a day memorializing the men who fought and fell for America, and not the legion of others. There is no Scientists Day, or Businessmen’s Day or Late Night Comedian’s Day, or Lying Journalists Day, or Conniving Congressmen’s Day – only Memorial Day.

Starting with the “embattled farmers” firing on the best professional army in the world, the tale wends its way through Gettysburg and the Argonne, D-Day and Iwo Jima, Chosin and Khe Sanh, Desert Storm and the War on Terrorism. On this day, we honor them all.

But it all started in Concord on a sunny April morning 244 years ago.


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Understanding our History: How Imperfect Patriots Changed America for the Better

Some reflections on divine providence.

Understanding our History: How Imperfect Patriots Changed America for the Better

Historians have spilled much ink since America’s founding over one single question: Is the U.S. a Christian nation?

Many believers today find comfort in the notion that their country was founded by many men and women of great faith. Others might prefer to scratch out references to God found in the Declaration of Independence and not just one, but all fifty of the state constitutions in our country.

Whatever side of this debate one lands on, the importance of accurately understanding and interpreting our nation’s history remains all the same. We live in a complex world where people often try to bend and twist historical truth to suit their needs. And where our ability to appreciate people’s great contributions to our country’s story may be hindered by their own imperfections.

As Dr. Tracy McKenzie of the Wheaton College History department writes, human beings “will be tempted, subconsciously at least, to distort what we see in order to find what we are looking for.”

This includes what we are looking for in our nation’s own founding.

Some choose to make gods and others make villains out of the founding fathers and those that followed after them as leaders of this country.

But what if today, we remember that history isn’t quite so black and white? What if instead of looking to question our founding ideologically or praise the founders themselves, we chose to see God’s protective hand over these imperfect patriots who shaped our nation?

If we believe God is active in history, then we can believe he is active in our nation’s history.

Ben Franklin’s prayer

If there’s anything Scripture teaches us time and time again, it’s the importance of prayer. Even Ben Franklin—a committed deist—commented on the value of such prayer.

It was the year of 1787 and a group of over 50 men were gathered in the city of Philadelphia to craft what would become our nation’s most important document: the Constitution. There was conflict and much clashing of ideas as one could surmise. But it occurred to Franklin who was there for the proceedings that the group might look to Someone greater for help.

Notes kept by delegate James Madison during the Constitutional Convention have Franklin rising one afternoon to say: “How has it happened that we have not hitherto once thought of humbly applying to the Father of lights to illuminate our understandings?… I have lived a long time,” he goes on, “and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth—that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probably that an empire can fall without his aid?”

While many question what happened after this was shared—whether the delegates at the Convention proceeded to pray or not—none can doubt the truth behind Franklin’s statement.

Prayer changes things—although it might not always be the challenging circumstances we face. God uses prayer to shape our hearts and help us trust in the good work he is doing even if we don’t see it yet for ourselves.

Franklin and the dozens of others gathered in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787 couldn’t have possibly known what would come of their work—that a nation which started off thirteen colonies large would later become a global power.

It is always a good day to thank God for guiding and protecting our nation’s founders.

Roddie Edmond’s courage

Master Sergeant Roddie Edmonds served the U.S. army during World War II in Europe. He was taken prisoner by the German forces alongside hundreds of other American POW’s—some of which were Jews.

One particular day in January of 1945, because of their hatred of the Jews, the Germans singled out the Jewish POW’s and announced that they would be separated from the rest of the group and taken somewhere else the following morning.

Master Sergeant Edmonds heard these orders and, as a man of great faith, knew he couldn’t follow them.

The next morning, Sergeant Edmonds ordered all the POW’s—1,275 men strong—to stand together. When the German Commandant emerged and saw them there, he said “All of you can’t be Jews.”

To this, the Sergeant Edmonds replied: “We’re all Jews here.”

Even with a gun dug deep into his forehead with threats being spoken to him from the German Commandant, he replied: “…You can shoot me but if you do, you’ll have to kill us all.”

Few could question the courage displayed by Edmonds which, in the end, spared the lives of many Jewish soldiers. This act of bravery is one of many stories we want to honor on this special day.

But beyond this, we should also hope to emulate Sergeant Edmonds and those like him who’ve lived like Christ amidst unspeakably challenging circumstances.

It is always a good day to thank God for people of courage throughout our nation’s history.

Displaying gratitude

Today is Memorial Day. We recognize the sacrifice of so many who gave their lives in the defense of freedom. It’s also a patriotic day and begins a patriotic season for many Americans, thinking about their nation between Memorial Day and Independence Day.

So, it is also worth remembering that God has guided this nation, and prayers and bravery are part of that story. So, on this day, we remember those who sacrificed and we begin a season of thankfulness for the guidance of God in our nation’s history.

For this we are thankful.

Gabriella Siefert serves as an Editorial Assistant for The Exchange. She just graudated from Wheaton College where she studied Political Science, Spanish, and Biblical and Theological Studies. Outside of her work as a writer and communicator, Gabriella enjoys volunteering with Juvenile Justice Ministry.


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Ten Facts About George Washington


May 9, 2019 by Wallbuilders

From the $1 Bill to the capital of America, George Washington’s name appears more often than probably any other name in American history. Being the most prominent Founding Father, everyone learns how Washington led the Continental Army against the British during the War for Independence and eventually became the first President of the United States. But there are plenty of stories and facts that are rarely taught in schools today. Watch the video and then read below about ten facts you probably do not know about George Washington.

1. George Washington did not chop down a cherry tree.

“I cannot tell a lie,” a young George Washington is reported to have said—but his biographers sure can! The famous story originates from the 5th edition of the popular biography The Life of Washington the Great by Mason Weems.[i] Published in 1806, seven years after Washington’s death, there are no primary sources attesting to its truthfulness. All things considered, its late appearance and the complete lack of evidence has led most to consider it apocryphal

2. He was most embarrassed about his lack of education and his bad teeth.

The most persistent enemy to Washington were not his political or military opponents, but his teeth. By the time he was sworn in as the first President of the United States he only had a single original tooth left.[ii] Over the course of his life he had a number of dentures made from a wide variety of materials.[iii] The dentures of the time were large, bulky, and burdensome which worked together to make Washington quite self-conscience about them leading him to be more introverted than perhaps he might have been.[iv]

On top of this, George Washington did not have the same high level of education his older brothers received due to the death of their father when he was only eleven years old. This tragedy led Washington to become a surveyor (which incidentally provided the exact education he needed to do the amazing things God had planned for him). When standing next to the genius level intellects of Jefferson, Adams, and others it was easy for Washington to feel at an embarrassing disadvantage to his more educated peers.[v] That said, Washington was still incredibly intelligent on account of his extensive reading throughout his life in order to make up for his perceived lack of formal education.

3. He was nominated to be commander of the colonial army by John Adams.

“I do not think myself equal to the Command I am honored with.”[vi]It was with these words that the ever-humble George Washington accepted the unanimous appointment to command the soon-to-be-created Continental Army. The official vote happened on June 15, 1775, with John Adams credited as being the one who recommended and nominated Washington to the position.[vii] On the occasion, Adams wrote to his wife explaining how Congress elected the, “modest and virtuous, the amiable, generous and brave George Washington,” and solemnly proclaimed that, “the Liberties of America, depend upon him.”[viii]

4. George Washington was described as being taller than the average man.

Noted early biographer Jared Sparks clocked Washington in at an impressive 6 feet, 3 inches.[ix] John Adams, later in life, wrote to fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence, Dr. Benjamin Rush, that Washington had, “a tall Stature, like the Hebrew Sovereign chosen because he was taller by the Head than the other Jews.”[x]

A military observer repeatedly called attention to the vast stature of Washington, explaining, “it is not difficult to distinguish him from all others; his personal appearance is truly noble and majestic; being tall and well proportioned.”[xi] He continues to write that Washington, “is remarkably tall, full six feet, erect and well proportioned…This is the illustrious chief, whom a kind Providence has decreed as the instrument to conduct our country to peace and to Independence.”[xii] George Washington was a tall man with an even bigger purpose.

5. He encouraged his troops to go to church.

As General, Washington would issue orders throughout the army instructing them as to what the day would hold. On June 23, 1777, he issued the following order:

“All chaplains are to perform divine service tomorrow, and on every other succeeding Sunday, with their respective brigades and regiments, when their situations will admit of it, and the commanding officers of the corps are to see that they attend. The Commander-in-Chief expects an exact compliance with this order, and that it be observed in future as an invariable rule of practice, and every neglect will not only be considered a breach of orders, but a disregard to decency, virtue, and religion.”[xiii]

Being a man of great piety and sincere religion, it is no surprise that Washington placed such an extraordinary emphasis on his men going to church. In fact, when Washington felt like the chaplains were not doing a good enough job of providing opportunities for his soldiers to go to church, he made all the chaplains come to a meeting to fix the issue.[xiv]

Washington’s devotion to Christ was so apparent in the camp that the Rev. Henry Muhlenberg, father of Major General John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, remarked:

“His Excellency General Washington rode around among his army yesterday and admonished each and every one to fear God, to put away the wickedness that has set in and become so general, and to practice the Christian virtues. From all appearances this gentleman does not belong to the so-called world of society, for he respects God’s word, believes in the atonement through Christ, and bears himself in humility and gentleness. Therefore the Lord God has also singularly, yea, marvelously, preserved him form harm in the midst of countless perils, ambuscades [ambushes], fatigues, etc. and has hitherto graciously held him in His hand as a [chosen] vessel. II Chronicles 15:1-3.”[xv]

6. He forbade his officers to swear.

Along the same lines as the previous fact, Washington focused on making the American military not only righteous but also respectable. To this end, on July 4, 1775, he issued the following order:

“The General most earnestly requires, and expects, a due observance of those articles of war, established for the Government of the army, which forbid profane cursing, swearing and drunkenness; And in like manner requires and expects, of all Officers, and Soldiers, not engaged on actual duty, a punctual attendance on divine Service, to implore the blessings of heaven upon the means used for our safety and defense.”[xvi]

7. He was the only President elected unanimously.

After the ratification of the Constitution, the first order of business was to fill the newly created positions of government. The most important question was, “who will be our President?” For the Americans of 1789, that was apparently an easy answer. “George Washington of course!” With that resolution, Washington, “by no effort of his own, in a manner against his wishes, by the unanimous vote of a grateful country.”[xvii] This incredible feat was only ever one other time—by Washington again for his second term.[xviii]

8. George Washington added “So help me God” to the Presidential Oath of Office.

Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution states that when the President is sworn into office, he is to say the following oath:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”[xix]

With his hand laid upon the open Bible, Washington said the oath. Washington sealed the oath by with a solemn, “so help me God,” and then reverently bowed down and kissed the Bible.[xx] One eyewitness to the event recalled that, “it seemed, from the number of witnesses, to be a solemn appeal to Heaven and earth at once.”[xxi]

9. He was elected to be a vestryman at local churches.

In early American Episcopalian churches, vestrymen were, “a select number of principal persons of every parish, who choose parish officers and take care of its concerns.”[xxii] This included making sure the poor, widows, and orphans were taken care of, and even extended to major decisions about the church as a whole.

George Washington was elected (perhaps his first election) to be a vestryman in two different parishes. In March of 1765, he was chosen in Fairfax Parish with 274 votes, and then four months later he was again chosen in Truro Parish with 259 votes.[xxiii]Washington was extremely active as a vestryman.[xxiv]

On one occasion, Washington even went toe-to-toe with George Mason (fellow future delegate to the Constitution Convention) about relocating the church to a new site. After an impassioned speech by Mason which seemingly settled the question, Washington unassumingly rose and used a surveying map to show where the new site would be and how it would be better for each parishioner. This sudden recourse to sound reason and just sensibilities restored the council to their senses and they voted with Washington to move the church to the new site.[xxv]

10. George Washington was killed by his doctors.

This characterization might be a little uncharitable—the doctors were doing the best they could with the knowledge they had—but it doesn’t mean it’s not true. The old General fell sick after riding out on Mount Vernon during the cold rain. Soon, he was struggling to breathe. The following is taken from the journal of George Washington’s lifelong friend and physician, James Craik:

“The disease commenced with a violent ague, accompanied with some pain in the upper and fore part of throat, a sense of stricture in the same part, a cough, and a difficult rather than paint deglutition, which were soon succeeded by fever and a quick and laborious respiration. The necessity of blood-letting suggesting itself to the General, he procured a bleeder in the neighborhood, who took from his arm, in the night, twelve or fourteen ounces of blood.”[xxvi]

Medical science at the time thought that a number of sicknesses were caused because of some issue with the person’s blood itself. To fix the disease, therefore, a common “solution” would be to bleed a patient out in order to get rid of the bad blood.

Once more doctors had been called to the scene, Craik continues:

“In the interim were employed two copious bleedings; a blister was applied to the part affected, two moderate doses of calomel were given, and an injection was administered, which operated on the lower intestines—but all without any perceptible advantage; the respiration becoming still more difficult and distressing.”[xxvii]

Even more blood was taken, and now the doctors applied hot irons to his throat because they thought that an accumulation of blood in Washington’s throat was what caused the difficulty breathing. Calomel is a kind of mercury chloride, which, if you aren’t aware, is quite toxic! This, along with the bleedings and the injections were a long way off from helping Washington get better. But the doctors weren’t done yet:

“Upon the arrival of the first of the consulting physicians, it was agreed…To try the result of another bleeding, when about thirty-two ounces of blood were drawn, without the smallest apparent alleviation of the disease…ten grains of calomel were given, succeeded by repeated doses of emetic tartar, amounting, in all, to five or six grains, with no other effect than a copious discharge of the bowels. The powers of life seemed now manifestly yielding to the force of the disorder. Blisters were applied to the extremities.”[xxviii]

More blood-letting, more toxic calomel, more blisters. The biggest variation in this round of treatments is that they gave Washington another poisonous substance—emetic tartar. Altogether, it served only to give the dying President diarrhea.

Finally, Dr. Craik relates the end to his friend’s suffering:

“Speaking, which was painful from the beginning, now became almost impracticable; respiration grew more and more contracted and imperfect, till…when retaining the full possession of his intellect, he expired without a struggle.”[xxix]

A contemporary doctor estimated the total amount of blood drawn to be, “the enormous quantity of eighty-two ounces, or above two quarts and a half of blood in about thirteen hours.”[xxx] The same doctor goes on to accurately explain that:

“Very few of the most robust young men in the world could survive such a loss of blood; but the body of an aged person must be so exhausted, and all his power so weakened by it as to make his death speedy and inevitable.”[xxxi]

The average amount of blood that someone of Washington’s size and stature is around 210 ounces. If, as the doctor estimates, somewhere around 82 ounces were taken, then Washington lost nearly 40% of his blood. This amount is nearly tantamount to exsanguination (death by bleeding out), and when combined with the blisters, calomel, emetic tartars, and the various vapors, it appears to be the unfortunate conclusion that the doctors killed George Washington.[xxxii]

[i] Mason Locke Weems, The Life of Washington the Great (Augusta, GA: George P. Randolph, 1806), 8-9.

[ii] “Washington Tooth Troubles,” Mount Vernon (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[iii] “A History of Dental Troubles,” Mount Vernon (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[iv] “Washington Tooth Troubles,” Mount Vernon (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[v] “Education,” Mount Vernon (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[vi] “June 16, 1775,” Journal of the Continental Congress (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[vii] Washington Irving, Life of George Washington (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855) Vol. 1, p. 316, here; “Washington’s Revolutionary War Battles,’ Mount Vernon (accessed March 29, 2019), here; “Washington,” The Land We Love, Vol. I, No V(Charlette, North Carolina: June 1866), p. 97, here; Sean Lawler, “John Adams and the Revolutionary War,” Boston Tea Party Museum (August 21, 2014), here; “Role in Congress,” John Adams Historical Society (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[viii] John Adams, “To Abigail Adams, June 17, 1775” Letters of the Delegates to Congress (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[ix] Jared Sparks, The Life of George Washington (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1853), 102, here

[x] John Adams, “To Benjamin Rush, November 11, 1807,” Founders Online (accessed March 29, 2019), here

[xi] James Thacher, A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War (Boston; Richardson and Lord, 1823), p. 37, here.

[xii] James Thacher, A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War (Boston; Richardson and Lord, 1823), p. 182-183, here.

[xiii] George Washington,“General Order, June 28, 1777,” Records of the Revolutionary War (New York: Pudney & Russell, 1858), p. 330, here.

[xiv] George Washington, “General Order, October 7, 1777,” Records of the Revolutionary War (New York: Pudney & Russell, 1858), p. 345, here.

[xv] Henry Muhlenberg, The Journals of Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg (Philadelphia: The Muhlenberg Press, 1958), Vol. III, p. 149, journal entry for May 7, 1778.

[xvi] George Washington, “General Orders, July 4, 1775,” Library of Congress (accessed March 30, 2019), here

[xvii] Washington Irving, Life of George Washington (New York: G. P. Putman, 1865) Vol. IV, p. 476, here

[xviii] Jared Sparks, The Life of George Washington (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1853), 445, here

[xix] Article II, Section 1, Constitution of the United Stateshere

[xx] Washington Irving, Life of George Washington (New York: G. P. Putman, 1865) Vol. IV, p. 475, here

[xxi] “Philadelphia, May 8. Extract of a Letter from New York, May 3,” Gazette of the United States (May 9 to May 13, 1789), here

[xxii] Noah Webster, “Vestry-man,” American Dictionary of the English Language (1828), here

[xxiii] Jared Sparks, The Life of George Washington (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1853), 520, here

[xxiv] “Churchwarden and Vestryman,” Mount Vernon (accessed April 1, 2019), here

[xxv] Jared Sparks, The Life of George Washington (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1853), 106, here

[xxvi] James Craik, “From The Times, A Newspaper printed in Alexandria (Virginia), dated December, 1799,” The Medical Repository (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1805), Vol. III, p. 311, here

[xxvii] James Craik, “From The Times, A Newspaper printed in Alexandria (Virginia), dated December, 1799,” The Medical Repository (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1805), Vol. III, p. 311-312, here

[xxviii] James Craik, “From The Times, A Newspaper printed in Alexandria (Virginia), dated December, 1799,” The Medical Repository (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1805), Vol. III, p. 312, here

[xxix] James Craik, “From The Times, A Newspaper printed in Alexandria (Virginia), dated December, 1799,” The Medical Repository (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1805), Vol. III, p. 312, here

[xxx] John Brickell, “Medical Treatment of General Washington,” Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia(Philadelphia: Printed for the College, 1903), Vol. 25, p. 93, here

[xxxi] John Brickell, “Medical Treatment of General Washington,” Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia(Philadelphia: Printed for the College, 1903), Vol. 25, p. 93, here

[xxxii] For a more technical examination of the medical circumstances surrounding Washington’s death see, Dr. Wallenborn’s, “George Washington’s Terminal Illness: A Modern Medical Analysis of the Last Illness and Death of George Washington,” The Washington Papers (November 5, 1997), here

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